Primers and probes
Mycoplasma genitalium is a small pathogenic bacterium which infects epithelial cells of the urinary and genital tracts. M. genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted infection occuring during unprotected sexual intercourse. Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with notable reproductive tract syndromes such as cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Mycoplasma genitalium has been strongly associated with urethritis in both men and women and with cervicitis in women. Among Mycoplasma genitalium infected men, symptomatic urethritis is more common than asymptomatic urethritis. Owing to the slow cell replication and fastidious growth requirements, culture is impossible to use in clinical practice. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently the method of choice for detection.
Treatment using Azithromycin is often recommended for treating Mycoplasma genitalium infections but therapeutic failures have been reported in many cases of non-gonococcal urithritis caused by MG, because of the increased prevalence of resistance to macrolides. Resistance to macrolides of Mycoplasma genitalium is primarly down to mutations in the V region of the gene for 23S rRNA in nucleotides 2028 and/or 2059.